Space presents limitless possibilities for exploration, scientific inquiry, and commercial enterprise that push the boundaries of optical technology. Fantastic images of objects in space, including Earth, have inspired generations of optical scientists and engineers, and continue to do so as higher performance or new needs arise. Satellites and probes in space are equipped with imagers, sensors, measurement devices, and communication systems that are very often specialized, purpose-built optical equipment designed to survive the rigors of the environment. Similarly, Earth-based optical systems used in space missions or applications often have unique requirements, exemplified by adaptive optics in large-aperture telescopes and high-bandwidth optical communications links. This workshop examines emerging trends in the use of space, the consequences of growing interest from new-to-space users, and the resultant opportunities for the optical community.