2018 Plenary Speakers

Stephen A. Boppart

Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

Stain-Free Slide-Free Multiphoton Histopathology of Carcinogenesis and Cancer

Multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for stain-free slide-free histopathology. We have recently demonstrated a fiber-based nonlinear optical microscope that achieves fast and simultaneous visualization of a variety of intrinsic molecular contrasts within live tissue including auto-fluorescence excited by two/three-photon processes and specially structured molecules by second/third harmonic generation. Results from human subjects with and without breast cancer, and a pre-clinical rat mammary tumor model, show that extracellular vesicles (exosomes and microvesicles) may serve as new biomarkers for breast cancer. Real-time videos also demonstrate the versatility of this imaging platform in tracking cellular events, including tumor cell migration and leukocyte activation in living rats with carcinogen-induced mammary tumors.  

Histopathology, whether with standard hematoxylin and eosin or special immunohistochemical stains, has been the gold-standard process for the diagnosis of disease.  However, due to the intensive time and labor required for the histochemical treatment of the tissue in traditional histopathology, great efforts have been devoted to using label-free optical imaging for the examination of intact biological specimens, even in vivo. By shifting to a new excitation wavelength, our fiber-based multimodal nonlinear optical microscope achieves fast and simultaneous visualization of the rich intrinsic molecular information within fresh human breast tissue.  

In addition to the near-real-time visualization of the authentic tumor microenvironment, quantitative analysis of these multi-dimensional datasets was performed in search for more selective clinical biomarkers. Preliminary analysis conducted on fresh human breast tissue obtained from healthy and cancer subjects showed that a significant portion of extracellular vesicles from the tumor micro- and macro-environment have unique optical signatures in comparison with those from healthy subjects, opening investigations of their physiological role in carcinogenesis and their diagnostic value for cancer.  Collectively, the potential exists for real-time stain-free in vivohistopathology, promoting imaging-based scientific research, and potentially revealing new image-based biomarkers for diseases such as cancer.  

Multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a powerful tool for stain-free slide-free histopathology. We have recently demonstrated a fiber-based nonlinear optical microscope that achieves fast and...

About the Speaker

Professor Boppart heads the Biophotonics Imaging Laboratory at the Beckman Institute and is a full-time faculty member in the Bioimaging Science and Technology group. His home departments are Electrical and Computer Engineering and Bioengineering, with affiliations with the Department of Internal Medicine in the College of Medicine, the Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Institute for Genomic Biology. Professor Boppart received his PhD in Electrical and Medical Engineering from MIT in 1998 and his MD from Harvard Medical School in 2000. Currently he combines his optical imaging and biophotonics research and teaching with clinical research in novel medical technologies.

Professor Boppart heads the Biophotonics Imaging Laboratory at the Beckman Institute and is a full-time faculty member in the Bioimaging Science and Technology group. His home departments are...

Eric R. Fossum

Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth University, USA

Quanta Image Sensor: Photon counting with high resolution and high frame rate

The Quanta Image Sensor will be introduced and recent progress presented from a 1Mpixel, 1000fps, back-illuminated room temperature stacked device. The prototype device features very low dark count rate and high quantum efficiency with further improvements anticipated in the future.

The Quanta Image Sensor will be introduced and recent progress presented from a 1Mpixel, 1000fps, back-illuminated room temperature stacked device. The prototype device features very low dark count...

About the Speaker

Dr. Eric R. Fossum is best known for the invention of the CMOS image sensor “camera-on-a-chip” used in billions of cameras, from smart phones to web cameras to pill cameras and many other applications.  He has been a Professor with the Thayer School of Engineering since 2010.  He also serves as Dartmouth’s Associate Provost for Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer. Fossum is a Queen Elizabeth Prize Laureate, the world’s largest engineering prize, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a National Inventors Hall of Fame inductee, and a Fellow member of the IEEE and OSA.

Dr. Eric R. Fossum is best known for the invention of the CMOS image sensor “camera-on-a-chip” used in billions of cameras, from smart phones to web cameras to pill cameras and many...

Irene Georgakoudi

School of Engineering, Tufts University, USA

Unraveling the origins of endogenous optical metabolic changes

The ability to monitor subcellular functional and structural changes associated with metabolism is essential for understanding tissue development and disease progression. Metabolic perturbations or dysfunctions often play a critical role in numerous diseases, including cancer, obesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Established methods to assess metabolic processes are either destructive or require the use of exogenous compounds. However, such approaches are limited in their ability to capture the highly dynamic and heterogeneous nature of metabolic responses.  In my plenary presentation, I will explain how a combined use of endogenous two-photon intensity and lifetime based fluorescence measurements enable ways to identify changes in specific metabolic pathways. These functional insights can improve understanding of disease development and drug effects.

The ability to monitor subcellular functional and structural changes associated with metabolism is essential for understanding tissue development and disease progression. Metabolic perturbations or...

About the Speaker

Irene Georgakoudi has been working on the use of lasers for therapeutic and diagnostic applications since her undergraduate years. She started as a physicist at Dartmouth College and continued her graduate studies in Biophysics at the University of Rochester. Her interests in spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging using endogenous sources of contrast were founded during her postdoctoral years at the MIT Spectroscopy Lab. After working on the development of fluorescence-based in vivo flow cytometry while an Instructor at the Wellman Laboratories for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, she moved to Tufts in 2004. She is the author of several patents on the development and use of spectroscopy and imaging to characterize tissues or to detect specific populations of cells and has published numerous peer reviewed manuscripts, review articles and book chapters in these topics. She is the recipient of a Claflin Distinguished Scholar, an NSF Career, and an American Cancer Society Research Scholar award. She has served on the Board of Directors of the Optical Society of America, and is the Director of the Tufts Advanced Microscopic Imaging Center (TAMIC).

Irene Georgakoudi has been working on the use of lasers for therapeutic and diagnostic applications since her undergraduate years. She started as a physicist at Dartmouth College and continued her...

Nozomi Nishimura

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, USA

Exploring natural behaviors of cells in the wild with in vivo multiphoton microscopy

Two-photon microscopy has become an important tool for experimental biology because it enables the dynamic imaging of cellular structures within a whole, living organism. Recent progress such as novel preparations, three-photon microscopy and third harmonic generation imaging reveal new phenomena in mouse models.

Two-photon microscopy has become an important tool for experimental biology because it enables the dynamic imaging of cellular structures within a whole, living organism. Recent progress such as...

About the Speaker

Nozomi Nishimura majored in Physics at Harvard College where she worked with Prof. Eric Mazur on femtosecond laser ablation. In graduate school she became interested in neuroscience and worked with Prof. David Kleinfeld at University of California at San Diego. Although still in the Physics Department, her research focused on studying blood flow in the brain of rodents and developing laser-based models of small stroke. She went to Biomedical Engineering at Cornell in 2006 to do a postdoc with Prof. Chris Schaffer. She became an Assistant Professor in Biomedical Engineering in 2013. At Cornell, current research expands the use of in vivo imaging techniques to study a variety of disorders including Alzheimer's disease, cardiac disease and cancer metastasis. As a postdoc, she was awarded a L'Oreal USA Fellowship for Women in Science, the NIH Ruth L. Kirschstein NRSA Postdoctoral Fellowship, and the American Heart Association Postdoctoral Fellowship and while at UC San Diego, she received a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.

Nozomi Nishimura majored in Physics at Harvard College where she worked with Prof. Eric Mazur on...

Kandice Tanner

Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, USA

Using Optical tweezers to probe the role of tissue biophysics in metastasis

Tumor latency and dormancy are obstacles in effective treatment of cancer. In the event of metastastic disease, emergence of a lesion can occur at varying intervals from diagnosis and in some cases following successful treatment of the primary tumor. Genetic factors that drive metastatic progression have been identified, such as those involved in cell adhesion, signaling, extravasation and metabolism.  Is there a difference in strategy to facilitate outgrowth? Why is there a difference in latency? One missing cue may be the role of tissue biophysics of the brain microenvironment on the infiltrated cells.  Here I discuss using optical tweezer based active microrheology to measure the mechanical cues that may influence disseminated tumor cells in different organ microenvironment. I further discuss in vitro and in vivo preclinical models such as 3D culture systems and zebrafish in efforts of providing novel targeted therapeutics.

Tumor latency and dormancy are obstacles in effective treatment of cancer. In the event of metastastic disease, emergence of a lesion can occur at varying intervals from diagnosis and in some cases...

About the Speaker

Kandice Tanner received her doctoral degree in Physics at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign under Professor Enrico Gratton. She completed post-doctoral training at the University of California, Irvine specializing in dynamic imaging of thick tissues. She then became a Department of Defense Breast Cancer Post-doctoral fellow jointly at University of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Dr. Mina J. Bissell. Dr. Tanner joined the National Cancer Institute as a Stadtman Tenure-Track Investigator in July, 2012, where she integrates concepts from molecular biophysics and cell biology to learn how cells and tissues sense and respond to their physical microenvironment, and to thereby design therapeutics and cellular biotechnology. For her work, she has been awarded the 2013 National Cancer Institute Director’s Intramural Innovation Award, the 2015 NCI Leading Diversity award, 2016 Federal Technology Transfer Award, the 2016 Young Fluorescence Investigator award from the Biophysical Society and named as a Young Innovator in Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, which highlight her scientific accomplishments and service to the greater intramural NIH and extramural scientific community. She also maintains strong connections with the extramural community through service as an editorial board member of Scientific Reports and as a review editor for Frontiers in Cell and Development Biology. She currently serves on the Membership Committee of the American Society of Cell Biology, the Minority Affairs Committee of the Biophysical Society and is a Member at large for the Division of Biological Physics of the American Physical Society.

Kandice Tanner received her doctoral degree in Physics at the University of...

Arjun G. Yodh

Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania, USA

Diffuse Optical Monitoring of Biomarkers in Brain and Breast

I will describe our progress applying diffuse optical monitoring techniques to measure hemodynamics, metabolism, and autoregulation in brain and breast tissues. The brain studies demonstrate potential for usage as a bedside treatment management tool in the neuro-ICU, especially for patients with traumatic brain injury and acute stroke; the breast studies demonstrate potential of optical cancer therapy monitoring, especially for patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery. 

I will describe our progress applying diffuse optical monitoring techniques to measure hemodynamics, metabolism, and autoregulation in brain and breast tissues. The brain studies demonstrate...

About the Speaker

Arjun G. Yodh is the James M. Skinner Professor of Science in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania. At Penn, he is also Director of The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM) and its NSF-supported Materials Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC).  Yodh has published over 300 papers (>32,000 citations, h-index 96) about research that spans the fields of Biomedical Optics, Condensed Matter Physics, and Atomic, Molecular & Optical Sciences. His biomedical research is oriented towards diffuse optical imaging and monitoring of brain, breast, and muscle, and towards monitoring of hemodynamic biomarkers during therapy. His group made key contributions to the development of this field starting from its earliest stages, including identification of connections between traditional and diffuse optics, elucidation of diffuse optical resolution and contrast limits, experimental demonstration of frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography, imaging of exogenous contrast agents in human breast cancer based on both absorption contrast and fluorescence contrast, development of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for measurement of tissue blood flow, first all-optical measurements of tissue oxygen metabolism in human brain, technique validation of the optical methods in pre-clinical and clinical contexts against MRI, Xe-CT, ultrasound and other traditional techniques, and more. Yodh is a Fellow of the OSA, APS, AAAS, and AIMBE. 

Arjun G. Yodh is the James M. Skinner Professor of Science in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania. At Penn, he is also Director of The Laboratory for...