Optical Interference Coatings (OIC)

19 - 24 June 2016
Lowes Ventana Canyon , Tucson, Arizona, USA

Short Courses

Short Courses cover a broad range of topic areas at a variety of educational levels (introductory to advanced). The courses are taught by highly regarded industry experts in a variety of specialties. Short Courses are an excellent opportunity to learn about new products, cutting-edge technology and vital information at the forefront of your field. They are designed to increase your knowledge of a specific subject while offering you the experience of knowledgeable teachers.  OIC 2016 will offer a variety of short courses.  Please find the schedule and descriptions below.

Sunday, 19 June, 08:00 - 12:00
SC297 Holistic Approach to the Fabrication of Optical Coating Systems
SC399 Process Concepts of Magnetron Sputtering for Optical Coatings
NEW SC432- Understanding Optical Interference Coatings
NEW SC433 - Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

Sunday, 19 June, 13:00 - 17:00
NEW SC434 - Atomic Layer Deposition for Optical Applications: Refractive and Diffractive Optics
NEW SC435 - Nano-structured Materials: Fundamentals, Potential Applications and Practical Issues
NEW SC436 - Characterization Strategies and Techniques for Optical Interference Coating for Laser Applications
NEW SC437 - Thickness Monitoring and Enhanced Production Strategies for Optical Coatings

SC297 - Holistic Approach to the Fabrication of Optical Coating Systems

Ludvik Martinu, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada
08:00 to 12:00, Sunday, 19 June 2016
Course Description:
Further advances in optical coatings (OC) for their application in optics, optoelectronics and photonics strongly depend on the development of new deposition processes, film materials and characterization techniques for optical film systems such as optical filters, waveguides, and optical micro-electromechanical systems. Besides appropriate control of the optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical loss), the requirements include enhanced mechanical performance, long-term environmental stability, and specific functional characteristics (electrical conductivity, gas or vapor permeation, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, etc.). Such film properties are closely related to the film composition and microstructure that are dictated by the physical and chemical surface reactions during the film growth. This course presents all elements to be taken into account when considering the complete logistic loop from design to manufacture of optical coatings. Specifically, it provides a broad background with respect to the fabrication of optical filters while focusing on two important aspects:

  1. Effect of energetic ion- and photon-induced reactions at the surface during the film growth by different complementary techniques including ion (beam) assisted deposition (IAD or IBAD), magnetron sputtering (MS), High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS), dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS), filtered cathodic arc deposition (FCAD), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). It also provides an update on the recent advances in pulsed-discharge processes and time- and space-resolved diagnostic methods. In addition, this part includes the principles and capabilities of different complementary microstructural characterization methods suitable for materials assessment, for process optimization and for reverse engineering.
  2. Metrology of the mechanical, tribological and other functional properties of optical films and their long term stability under various thermal, radiative and environmental conditions. It makes a link between the optical, mechanical and other characteristics, the film microstructure and the film growth mechanisms, allowing one to perform film system optimization. This is illustrated by numerous practical examples of filter performance with discrete and graded index designs ranging from antireflective coatings and complex optical filters to the optical coatings on plastics.

Benefits and Learning Objectives:
This course should enable you to:

  • Describe the principles of different complementary deposition techniques of optical films and discuss their advantages for specific applications.
  • Explain the role surface reactions in the formation thin film microstructure.
  • Determine and discuss the relationship between the microstructure and the films’ optical, mechanical and other functional properties.
  • Summarize different testing methods for the assessment of the microstructure and of the optical and mechanical properties, and compare and explain their suitability.
  • Determine and justify the choice of specific deposition methods, thin film materials and characterization techniques for specific optical applications including multilayer and graded layer optical filters.
Intended Audience:

This course is intended for technologists, students, researchers, as well as managers who wish to obtain a condensed overview of the processes, materials and characterization techniques related to the fabrication of optical coatings, optical film systems, and to their optimization, as illustrated by numerous examples from laboratory and industrial practice. Familiarity with basic physical, optical and materials concepts would be helpful but not necessary.
Instructor Biography:
Ludvik Martinu is Professor at Polytechnique Montréal, Canada, Chairholder of the NSERC Multisectorial Industrial Research Chair in Coatings and Surface Engineering, Director of the Thin Film Research Center, founder and director of the Functional Coating and Surface Engineering Laboratory, Past President of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC), and organizer and co-organizer of numerous international symposia. His main research interest is surface engineering, plasma processing of materials, and the physics and technology of thin films for optics, photonics, aerospace, biomedical and other applications. His activities resulted in more than 350 publications and 10 patents and announcements of invention.

SC399 - Process Concepts of Magnetron Sputtering for Optical Coatings

Michael Vergöhl, Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films (IST), Germany
08:00 - 12:00, Sunday, 19 June 2016
Course Description:
Sputtering has become one of the most important technologies not only for large area applications, but also for optical technologies. With magnetron sputtering, a large variety of products in different applications are produced, beginning from large area low-e coatings to ultra-precise filters with more than 1000 layers.
Within the intermediate level course, people should become familiar with the different process concepts of magnetron sputtering, as used today for the development and production of optical functional coatings. The general focus of the course is on deposition processes for optical coatings and their connection to the relevant film properties. An overview is given to the process modifications which currently are undertaken to optimize layer properties such as: high or low roughness, hardness, elasticity, deposition temperature, deposition rate, stress, optical absorption and so on.
First, a short introduction into the physics of sputtering, the magnetron discharge and the transport of particles through the gas phase will be given. After the introduction of the magnetron cathode for sputtering in the second step, the focus will be on reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of the hysteresis in a reactive sputter process, which comes into play, will be discussed along with the common approaches to overcome the hysteresis. Pulsed magnetron sputter techniques (including HIPIMS) and cathode concepts (planar, rotatable) will be discussed, also with regard to differences in the ion energy distribution function. As a sidestep, the method of plasma simulation by Particle in Cell Monte Carlo Simulations is presented, allowing to calculate ion energy distributions functions and to design improved magnetron  systems.
The second part is more application oriented and concentrates on application oriented film properties obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering. Examples of present and arising applications will be given in the fields:
  • Large area coatings (e.g. bendable low-e coatings, electrochromic and self-cleaning photocatalytic coatings)
  • Scratch resistant coatings on glass/sapphire
  • Optical filters: Process concepts for precise multilayers, sputtering with rotatable, how are particles generated and how can they be avoided?
Benefits and Learning Objectives:
This course should enable you to:
  • Compare different deposition process concepts of (reactive) magnetron sputtering
  • Determine how hysteresis effects in reactive processes occur and how they can be handled;
  • Explain differences of process control concepts;
  • Discover dependencies of materials properties with process characteristics; 
  • Identify different applications of magnetron sputtering, especially for optical applications.
Intended Audience:
This course is of use for those people who are involved in the development and production of optical coatings by the use of magnetron sputtering or other deposition processes. Also people generally interested in magnetron sputter processes are addressed.
Instructor Biography:
Michael Vergöhl received his diploma in physics in 1992 at Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, and in 1996 he promoted there with a Dr. rer nat. thesis about Optical Spectroscopy of Si1-xGex thin films in high magnetic fields.  After a postdoc period at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), he is at Fraunhofer IST since 1997, where he took over the department of “Optical and electrical coatings” in 2003. In 2015 the department was renamed into “Low Pressure Plasma Processes”. He authored and co-authored about 60 scientific papers, 25 patents, and contributed to two textbooks. More details can be found on www.ist.fraunhofer.de.

NEW SC432 – Understanding Optical Coatings

Angus Macleod, Thin Film Center Inc., USA
08:00 - 12:00, Sunday, 19 June 2016
Course Description:
Optical systems will usually include a number of surfaces shaped to manipulate the light in desired ways. While their shape controls well the direction of the light, other properties are rarely satisfactory. To assure acceptable performance of the system, the properties of each of its surfaces must be modified in desired ways, a task achieved by optical coatings. Although most coatings will consist of the precise application of additional material, careful removal of surface material may, on occasion, also be involved.
Optical coatings operate by controlled interference combined with the optical properties of the incorporated materials that are in the form of thin uniform films of accurate thickness. There may be as few as one layer, or as many as several hundred, in a coating. Coating types range through reflectors, antireflection, beam splitters, narrowband filters, cold mirrors, hot mirrors, phase correction, edge filters, polarizers; the list goes on and on. Accurate derivation of coating properties requires the use of a computer that tirelessly carries out all the involved and tedious calculations but brings little in the way of understanding. It is the understanding to supplement the computed results that is the subject of this class.
We will start with some simple rules of interference and go onto consider various common structures that are used in optical coatings, the way in which they perform, and how to put them together to achieve enhanced performance. We avoid any advanced mathematics. That we leave to the computer.
Instructor Biography:
Angus Macleod has more than 50 years of experience in optical coatings, both in manufacturing and in research. He was born and educated in Glasgow, Scotland, and worked both in industry and academia in Great Britain before joining the University of Arizona as Professor of Optical Sciences in 1979. Since 1995, he has been full time with Thin Film Center, Inc., a software, training and consulting company in Tucson that he co-founded in 1986. He is the author of Thin Film Optical Filters, 4th edition (CRC Press, 2010).

NEW SC433 - Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

Instructor to be determined, J.A. Woollam Co, USA
08:00 to 12:00, Sunday, 19 June 2016
Course Description:
Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE) is an important metrology technique used for measurements of thin films and optical properties of materials.  Spectroscopic ellipsometry is now routinely used over a wide spectral range from the vacuum ultraviolet to the mid infrared in a variety of settings from research to production of optical coatings, semiconductors, displays, data storage, and solar cells.
This course surveys the fundamentals of spectroscopic ellipsometry including polarized light, interaction of light with materials, refractive index and optical constants (n&k), refractive index dispersion, instrumentation, data acquisition, data analysis, and physical interpretation of experimental results.  Specific real-world examples are considered throughout the course.
Learning Objectives:
This course will enable you to:
  • Understand polarized light, and its interaction with materials.
  • Distinguish between polarization and intensity-based optical measurements.
  • Explain terms describing optical constants such as refractive index, n & k, dielectric function, index dispersion and the Kramers-Kronig relation.
  • Predict optimum angle and wavelength ranges for data acquisition for dielectric, metal, and semiconductor materials.
  • Demonstrate the need for model-based analysis of raw optical data from ellipsometers and reflectometers.
  • Describe basic modeling strategies for a variety of organic and inorganic thin films and substrates.
  • Interpret model results for physical meaning.

Intended Audience:
Suitable for beginner to intermediate level ellipsometry users in industry or academia.  Process or R&D engineers, technicians, managers, students, faculty and research scientists will benefit from this concise survey course emphasizing and clarifying basic concepts of spectroscopic ellipsometry and its applications.  Basic college-level physics and math background helpful, but not required.
Course Level:
Beginner to Intermediate.

Instructor Biography:
To be provided at a later time.

NEW SC434 - Atomic Layer Deposition for Optical Applications: Refractive and Diffractive Optics

Adriana Szeghalmi, FHG IOF, Germany
13:00 to 17:00, Sunday, 19 June 2016
Course Description:
Advances in coating technologies for photonic applications are mandatory due to stringent requirements on optical coatings and the increasing need to coat complex and structured surfaces. This course will evaluate the potential of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to deal with these specific requirements of optical coatings. Atomic layer deposition was developed in the ‘70ies in Finland for the production of thin film electroluminescent displays and has been rapidly accepted in the semiconductor industry. Based on self-limiting surface reactions, ALD has the unique capability to deposit uniform and conformal thin films on high aspect ratio nanostructured substrates. This course will focus on:
  • Experimental aspects of ALD including reactor chamber design, plasma enhanced deposition, precursor chemicals, safety issues
  • Materials available by ALD, relevant optical properties, process optimization for optical applications
  • Refractive thin film coatings
  • Functional ALD coatings for diffractive optics.
Benefits and learning objectives
The course will enable participants to
  • Explain the working principle of atomic layer deposition
  • Define optical and material properties
  • Identify optical applications for multilayers and nanolaminates
  • Identify ALD applications for diffractive optics and photonic crystals

Intended Audience:
This course is intended for optics professionals and students interested in the design and production of optical coatings and structured optical elements. The course content will be accessible to students as well as engineering professionals.
Instructor Biography:
Dr. Adriana Szeghalmi is a material scientist at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena and group manager at the optical coating department of Fraunhofer IOF in Jena, Germany. She has been working in atomic layer deposition since 2007 to characterize and develop optical thin films for refractive and diffractive optics. She has published numerous papers and is co-author of the book chapter “Nanolaminates” (published in “Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials”, N. Pinna und M. Knez (Eds.), Wiley VCH, Weinheim, 2011).

NEW SC435 - Nano-structured Materials: Fundamentals, Potential Applications and Practical Issues

Michel Lequime, Institut Fresnel, France
13:00 to 17:00, Sunday, 19 June 2016

Course Description:
Structuration of the matter at the nano-scale offers unprecedented flexibility for controlling and manipulating light, by giving for instance access to near-zero or negative index of refraction. The optical properties of these new, artificial materials (usually called meta-materials) are derived both from the inherent properties of their constitutive elements as well as the geometrical arrangement of these elements at a scale smaller than the wavelength of the optical field.

The course includes an introduction to the fundamental concepts allowing to describe the optical properties of a metamaterial, a description of the impacts of metamaterial layers on the optical properties of thin-film stacks, a presentation of potential applications of such hybride structures, as well as a comprehensive sweep of practical examples of achievement.

Intended Audience:
This course is of use for anyone who would like to get an overview about metamaterials. It is addressed to newcomers and experts on technical and high school level and to engineer and science students of higher terms.

Instructor Biography:
Michel Lequime is Eméritus Professor at Centrale Marseille, a French engineer high school and senior scientist at the optical thin-film group of Institut Fresnel. Currently, his research interests concern the development of in situ optical monitoring systems, the comprehensive characterization of optical surfaces through spatially and angularly resolved light scattering measurements and the theoretical study of optical properties of thin-film stacks including metamaterials layers. He is credited with twenty six patents and more than two hundred publications and presentations in the areas of non-linear optics, space optics, fiber optic sensors, scattering phenomena and optical interference coatings. He is a member of the OSA and SPIE, and has served as Secretary of the Board of the French Optical Society (SFO, 2009-13).


NEW SC436  - Characterization Strategies and Techniques for Optical Interference Coating for Laser Applications

Instructor: Lars Jensen, Laser Zentrum Hannover eV, Germany
13:00 to 17:00, Sunday, June 19, 2016
Course Description:
Intense laser fields have the potential to take the interaction with dielectric media to the non-linear regime. Because of this, dielectric multilayer films were the necessary technology step in the 1960’s to take the newly developed laser to the power and energy levels where it could serve the multiple applications we know today.
Over these past decades, a most diverse matrix of laser parameters was developed. Systems with highest output powers and a large variety of emission wavelengths as well as pulse durations spread over 15 orders of magnitude have entered industrial and scientific applications. These systems can be considered as major innovation drivers and have contributed significantly to technological progress of society.
Design, development and application of these systems require a detailed understanding of the light - matter interaction and a precise quality control in the development and production process of the optical components and specifically in the thin films. Physical properties such as transmission/reflection, losses like absorption, fluorescence and scattering, durability towards hostile environments and high intensity laser fields and numerous further characteristics need to be understood and measured at the laser parameter set of the application.

This course will provide an overview on the techniques developed and a discussion on how to interpret the various resulting data.
Benefits and Learning Objectives:
  • Understand which interaction process can be assigned to the various laser operation modes (wavelength, pulse duration, etc.)
  • Establish an understanding on how different specifications call for different test methods
  • Discuss the sensitivity limits and error margins of the established and new test procedures
  • Review how far standardization has entered state-of-the-art practices
Intended Audience:
This course addresses participants entering the field of thin films for lasers but also for established professionals with an interest on how far measurements techniques have progressed. The content will be accessible to students as well as engineering professionals.
Instructor Biography:
Lars Jensen is a physicist and received his Diploma from the University of Hannover in 2005. While working as a research scientist at Laser Zentrum Hannover in the field of dielectric thin films for lasers he was awarded a PhD in physics (Dr.rer.nat.) from the Leibniz University of Hannover for his work in thin film development for UV lasers. In 2011 he was appointed head of the characterization group within the laser components department. He authored and co-authored over 50 scientific papers and conference proceedings and works as an expert in the international standardization of measurement techniques for optical components.

NEW SC437 - Thickness Monitoring and Enhanced Production Strategies for Optical Coatings

Henrik Ehlers, Laser Zentrum Hannover eV, Germany
13:00 to 17:00, Sunday, 19 June 2016

Course Description:
Precise thickness monitoring concepts are of key importance for the successful manufacturing of optical coatings, not only, but especially in case of highly complex thin film designs. This course provides an overview of the different thickness monitoring approaches available today, comprising the basic principles as well as examples of technical implementations. Besides some aspects of conventional non-optical and optical monitoring solutions in particular modern optical monitors covering a broad spectral range are in focus.

The course gives background on different monitoring strategies including examples of thickness determination algorithms applied in recent developments. The advantages of direct monitoring concepts will be discussed and illustrated by practical examples. Regarding technical aspects, the essential parts of thickness monitoring systems will be presented comparing different alternative solutions. This comprises typical light sources, optical components, and spectrometers for different wavelength ranges from the UV to the NIR. In addition, adapted monitoring configurations and error handling options as well as hybrid monitoring strategies based on the application of more than one thickness determination approach will be discussed. Also, some aspects of the process control interfaces of the monitoring systems and the deposition plants will be addressed.

Furthermore, detailed information on the integration of thickness monitors in flexible manufacturing concepts will be given. In these adaptive manufacturing environments, tailored computational manufacturing tools are combined with monitor specific on-line re-calculation and on-line design re-optimization modules. Examples will be presented to demonstrate resulting advantages as highest precision and flexibility, increased economic efficiency, and shortest product development times.

Benefits and Learning Objectives:
This course should enable participants to:
  • Compare and evaluate different thickness monitoring concepts with regard to the application
  • Discuss basic principles and technical implementations of recent developments in optical thickness monitoring
  • Identify error sources and optimize the process control stability on basis of available in situ data
  • Determine the specific advantages of adapted computational manufacturing, on-line re-calculation, and on-line design re-optimization tools

Intended Audience:
This course is intended for anyone who is interested in a detailed overview of the current status of thickness monitoring systems for optical coatings and the advantages of attributed adaptive manufacturing concepts. It addresses technologists, scientists, and students with a background in optical thin films and deposition processes for optical coatings.

Instructor Biography:
Dr. Henrik Ehlers is a physicist and head of the Process Development Group in the Laser Components Department at the Laser Zentrum Hannover, Germany. He has been working in the field of optical thin films for more than 10 years with focus on IAD and IBS deposition processes, in situ process diagnostics, and advanced process automation. He has several years teaching experience in optical coatings at a university of applied sciences and has authored numerous publications.