Optical Fabrication and Testing (OF&T)

Optical Fabrication and Testing (OF&T)

OF&T, will offer new ideas and concepts for the shaping, smoothing, testing and manufacture of conventional and novel optics/optical systems finding applications in existing and emerging technologies.

The 2014 Optical Fabrication and Testing Topical Meeting (OF&T) will emphasize new ideas, concepts and emerging applications in optics manufacturing and metrology. Hot topics will include the following: fabrication of optics by lasers, molding of micro-optics, deterministic manufacturing of aspheric / conformal / freeform optics, advanced metrology systems and direct slope/curvature measurement, fabrication of optics from novel materials, efficient manufacturing and testing of large optics, new CNC machining processes and advances in finishing science. Papers that describe manufacturing chains from the generation of complex shapes to the fine finishing of surfaces, giving details of the process science, will be especially welcomed.

The OF&T meeting will be held in conjunction with the joint ASPE (American Society for Precision Engineering)/ASPEN (Asian Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology) Summer Topical Meeting on the Manufacture and Metrology of Freeform and Off-Axis Aspheric Surfaces. 

1. Optical Materials
  • New materials for new applications (composites, plastics, crystals, glasses, lightweight materials, ceramics, carbides, chalcogenides, UV optical materials)
  • Material properties and the response to fabrication processes
2. Grinding and Polishing
  • Grinding, precision grinding, diamond turning and milling, ultrasound assisted machining, vibration assisted polishing, processing of edges
  • New ideas in traditional (pitch) polishing, magnetic field-assisted finishing, ion beam figuring and polishing, fluid-jet polishing, novel finishing processes
  • Abrasives, novel abrasive formulations, abrasive-impregnated pads
3. Figuring and Finishing Science (Laser Processing, etc.)
  • Fabrication or polishing of optics with lasers or concentrated light
  • Tailored slurries through the adjustment of pH and zeta potential
  • Deterministic figuring techniques, mid-to-high spatial frequency error control, and various smoothing approaches during computer controlled optical surfacing
4. Optical Testing and Advanced Metrology Systems
  • Testing for sub-surface damage, homogeneity, form, finish and scratch/dig
  • Measurement, interpretation, and applications of power spectral density
  • New ideas in interferometry, direct slope/curvature measurement
  • Testing aspheric surfaces with and without null-optics, reconfigurable nulls
  • Computer-generated holograms and spatial light modulators for testing
  • Absolute tests for flats, spheres and aspheres
  • New concepts in profilometry: optical and mechanical probes
  • Testing of very small optics
  • White light interferometry, fringe projection metrology, deflectometry
  • Testing in adverse environments: vibration, turbulence, vacuum, and space
  • In-process metrology
  • Testing of freeform surfaces
5. Assembly, Alignment, Contamination Control, Cleaning, Packaging
  • Adhesives and cements for elevated, ambient and low temperature
  • Stable joining of optical surfaces by optical contacting, direct bonding or laser welding
  • Alignment of optical components and systems containing aspheric elements
  • Alignment of multi-element mirrors
  • Measurement and control of deformation and stress birefringence in mounting
  • Cleaning optics, clean rooms and contamination control
  • Handling and packaging of precision optics
6. Process Engineering
  • Glass and plastic (micro) molding to high surface accuracy and low surface roughness
  • Cost effective optics manufacturing processes
  • Engineering gradient index optics
  • Cost effective fabrication of aspheric surfaces
  • Automation of the manufacturing chain in optics fabrication
  • Good and bad experiences from the shop floor
7. Fabricating Next Generation Optical Systems (Freeform Optics, etc.)
  • Photolithography optics
  • Adaptive optics
  • Integrated optics
  • Freeform optical systems and industrial manufacturing
8. Large Optics
  • Fabrication and testing of large optics for EUV and x-ray applications
  • Large optics for earth-based and space-based astronomy
9. Nanostructures and Films
  • Characterization of coatings for advanced laser optics
  • Nanostructures on optical surfaces
10. Education and Training in Optics Metrology and Finishing Science
  • Uncertainty and traceability
  • Interpretation of metrics for optical surface characterization
Jeffrey Kuhn, UgandaFinding Life in the Universe: the COLOSSUS Project, Plenary

Xinbin Cheng, ChinaCharacterization of Surface and Coating Imperfections for Advanced Laser Optics, Invited

Lee Cook, Dow Electronic MaterialsUnited StatesControl of Nanotexture and Spatial Frequency Transfer of Polishing Pad Texture to the Substrate, Invited

Angela Davies, Univ of North Carolina at CharlotteUnited StatesThe Representations of Spatial Frequency Errors for Optical Surfaces, Invited

Dominic Doyle, European Space AgencyNetherlandsCurrent and Future Fabrication and Testing Challenges for European Space Optics, Invited

Paul Dumas, QED Technologies IncUnited StatesAdvancements in Sub-aperture Stitching and Magnetorheological Finishing for Freeform Surfaces, Invited

Jonathan Ellis, University of RochesterUnited StatesNon-contact, Point-to-point Methods for Measuring Freeform Optics, Invited

Chris Evans, Univ of North Carolina at CharlotteUnited StatesPerspectives on Uncertainty and Traceability in Optics Manufacturing, Invited

Jeremy Govier, Edmund OpticsUnited StatesAdvantages to Using Commercial Off-the-shelf Optics for Design and Manufacture of Military Products, Invited

Sebastian Heidrich, Fraunhofer ILTGermanyHighlights of LaP 2014: 1st Conference on Laser Polishing, Aachen, Germany, 6 May 2014, Invited

Mourad Idir, Brookhaven National LaboratoryUnited StatesA 2-D Optical Slope Measuring Tool for x-ray Mirrors” , Invited

Shengyi Li, National University of Defense TechnologyChinaIon Beam Technology: Figuring, Smoothing and Adding for High-precision Optics, Invited

Hidekazu Mimura, University of TokyoJapanAdvanced Manufacturing of Novel Focusing Optics for X-rays, Invited

Juan Carlos Miñano, Universidad Politecnica de MadridSpainFabrication and Tolerances of Optics for High Concentration Photovoltaics, Invited

Brigid Mullany, Univ of North Carolina at CharlotteUnited StatesAbrasive Technologies: Current Research Activities and Directions – Highlights of the 2014 ASME Conference, Invited

Stefan Nolte, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaGermanyUltrastable Bonding of Glass with Femtosecond Laser Pulses, Invited

Gene Olczak, ITT Space Systems DivisionUnited StatesStitched CGH Measurements for Large Convex Aspheres, Invited

Michael Ponting, PolymerPlus LLCUnited StatesNanolayered Polymeric Gradient Refractive Index Optics, Invited

Christof Pruss, Universität StuttgartGermanyFlexibility and Rapid Measurement: Asphere and Freeform Metrology with Tilted Wave Interferometry, Invited

Kathleen Richardson, University of Central FL-CREOLUnited StatesOptimization of Manufacturability of Chalcogenide Glasses for Mid-infrared Optical Components, Invited

Tayyab Suratwala, Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryUnited StatesMechanisms and Control of Surface Figure and Roughness During Pad Polishing, Invited

Flemming Tinker, Aperture Optical SciencesUnited StatesThe Emergence of SiC Optics in the 21st Century, Invited

Marc Tricard, Zygo CorporationUnited StatesIndustrial Perspectives on Freeform Optics Manufacturing, Invited

Marcus Trost, Fraunhofer IOFGermanyEvaluation of Subsurface Damage and Surface Roughness by Light Scattering Techniques, Invited

Steve West, University of ArizonaUnited StatesDevelopment and Results for Stressed-lap Polishing of Large Telescope Mirrors, Invited

Takashi Yatsui, University of TokyoJapanDressed Photon-Phonon Polishing for Ultra-Smooth Surfaces, Invited

Xue-Jun Zhang, Changchun Inst of Optic, Fine Mech & PhyChinaTesting and alignment strategy for large field-of-view multi-mirror telescope, Invited
Stephen Jacobs, University of Rochester, United States
Dae Wook Kim, University of Arizona, United States
James Mooney, ITT Exelis, Inc, United States
Jessica Nelson, Optimax Systems Inc, United States
Jannick Rolland, University of Rochester, United States

Dave Aikens, Savvy Optics Corp., United States
Anthony Beaucamp, Chubu University ,
James Burge, University of Arizona, United States
Myung Cho, AURA NOAO, United States
Veera Dandu, Clarkson University & Intel Corporation, United States
Chris Evans, Univ of North Carolina at Charlotte, United States
Oliver Faehnle, FISBA OPTIK AG, Switzerland
William Goodman, Trex Enterprises Corp, United States
Ulf Griesmann, National Inst of Standards & Technology, United States
James Hadaway, University of Alabama in Huntsville, United States
Matthew Jenkins, Raytheon Company, United States
John Lambropoulos, University of Rochester, United States
Panomsak Meemon, Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand
Brigid Mullany, Univ of North Carolina at Charlotte, United States
Robert Parks, Optical Perspectives Group, United States
Francois Piche, QED Technologies, United States
Michael Ponting, PolymerPlus LLC, United States
Kathleen Richardson, University of Central FL-CREOL, United States
Sven Schröder, Fraunhofer IOF, Germany
Katie Schwertz, Edmund Optics, United States
Jim Schwiegerling, University of Arizona, United States
Shai Shafrir, Corning Incorporated, United States
Paul Shore, Cranfield University, United Kingdom
Erika Sohn, Instituto de Astronomia UNAM, Mexico
Tayyab Suratwala, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, United States
Flemming Tinker, Aperture Optical Sciences, United States
Ray Williamson, Ray Williamson Consulting, United States
Xue-Jun Zhang, Changchun Inst of Optic, Fine Mech & Phy, China
Weiyao Zou, ASML Optics LLC, United States
General Session with Plenary Speakers
Monday, 23 June, 08:00 - 10:00
Salons II & IIII
The Joint Plenary Session will feature a speaker from each of the three topical meetings (COSI, IODC, and OF&T).  The Plenary Presenters are listed below.

How to Measure Everything, David Brady, Duke University, USA

Finding Life in the Universe: The Colossus Project, Jeff R. Kuhn; Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, USA
Will Computational Imaging Change Lens Design?, Kevin P. Thompson, Synopsys, Inc., USA

Welcome Reception and Luau 
Monday, 23 June, 18:00 – 20:00 
The Coconut Grove at The Fairmont Orchid 
Join us in the Coconut Grove for some of Hawaii’s best entertainment and island food. The reception luau is open to committee/presenting author/student and full conference attendees. Conference attendees may purchase extra tickets for their guest.
Joint Poster Session
Tuesday, 24 June, 18:00 - 20:00
Grand Ballroom Salon I & Pre-Function
Posters are an integral part of the technical program and offer a unique networking opportunity, where presenters can discuss their results one-to-one with interested parties. Each author is provided with a 4 ft. × 8 ft. (1.22 m × 2.44 m) board on which to display the summary and results of his or her paper.

IODC Panel Discussion: “I Wish They Wouldn’t do That”: Seeing Design/Fabrication from the Other Point of View”
Tuesday, 24 June,17:15 (Immediately following presentations in IODC Postdeadline Session)
Grand Ballroom Salon III
With a panel of experts from the optical fabrication industry and a room full of optical designers, a forum is provided for discussion of topics relating to basic design philosophy, the selection of tolerances, the communication of tolerances, and the communication of what is easy to achieve and what is hard to achieve.  (Do designers really place beamsplitters at 45 degrees just because the drafting table has a click-stop at 45 degrees? Are fabricators telling us it is hard when it is really easy, just to make life simple for themselves?)  Bring your long-standing complaints with you to this session, but also be prepared to see the problem from the other point of view!

  • Jessica DeGroote Nelson, Optimax Systems, USA
  • Tolis Deslis, Jenoptik Optical Systems, USA
  • Cody Kreischer, Kreischer Optics, USA
  • Marc Tricard, Zygo Corp., USA
  • Paul Dumas, QED Technologies, Inc., USA

Michael Kidger Memorial Scholarship Award and Illumination Problems and Lens Design Presentations
Wednesday, 25 June18:00 - 20:00
Salon III
The Michael Kidger Memorial Scholarship Award will be presented to Brian Wheelwright prior to the Lens Design and Illumination Problems Presentations in Salon III.  The 2014 Kidger scholarship award will be presented to Brian by Kevin P Thompson, Synopsys Inc. USA. The award consists of a $5,000 cash grant supported by the Michael Kidger Memorial Scholarship Fund.

Following the presentation of the Kidger Award, the winners of the Illumination and Lens Design Problems will present their solutions.

2014 Short Course Schedule

Sunday, 22 June, 09:00-12:00
SC415 Making Sense of Waviness and Roughness on Optics
SC418 Optical Materials, Fabrication and the Testing for the Optical Engineer

Sunday, 22 June, 17:00-20:00
SC417 Evaluating Aspheres for Manufacturability

2014 Short Course Descriptions

SC415 Making Sense of Waviness and Roughness on Optics

Dave Aikens, Savvy Optics Corp, USA
Sunday, 22 June, 09:00 - 12:00

Course Description
The surface texture of a polished optical surface is an important, if misunderstood, surface property. This course is designed to bring photonics personnel up to an immediate working knowledge on surface texture specifications and the impact surface roughness and waviness can have on an optical system.  Surface roughness causes scatter and system transmission loss, while waviness and mid-spatial frequency ripple can cause loss of resolution, image quality, veiling glare, beam modulation and a host of other issues.
Until recently, surface texture could be safely described by a single number, RMS roughness, following MIL-STD-10A, since most polished optical surfaces were manufactured using the same slurry-pitch process that had existed for decades. In the past 30 years, however, new manufacturing technologies have evolved using molding, diamond turning, synthetic lap polishing and deterministic figuring which have dramatically altered the surface finish of optics. In order to control the resultant surface texture errors, new specifications like gradients, correlation values, PSDs and MSF waviness specifications have been introduced. Most users do not completely understand these new notations however, and the meaning of even a simple RMS roughness specification has become obscure, or even meaningless.
The course defines the terms and parameters used to control surface texture in the modern optical manufacturing world. The potential performance impact of surface texture errors will be covered, and some specific case studies will be used to show the impact of various amplitudes of these errors on precision optical instrument performance. The national and international standards are introduced, and the derivation of meaningful specification for texture and waviness for common applications is discussed. Finally, the identification, measurement and reduction of these manufacturing errors is treated.

Benefits and Learning Objectives
This course should enable participants to:
  • Describe the surface texture of a polished optical surface based on its specifications
  • Understand the meaning of a Power Spectral Density plot
  • Quantify the requirements for surface texture using PSD and gradient notations
  • Predict the impact of mid-spatial frequency ripple and roughness on system performance
  • Compose a meaningful surface texture specification for both waviness and roughness
  • Identify waviness surface errors in measurement data
Intended Audience
This course is intended for engineers, managers and experienced technicians working in optical design, manufacturing, metrology and quality control and assurance.  Anyone who is responsible for specifying or interpreting surface roughness and waviness specifications will find it extremely useful. Some understanding of algebra is beneficial. 

Dave Aikens has been writing on the subject of surface texture and ripple for more than 20 years and is one of the foremost experts on optics mid-spatial frequency waviness today.  Dave is President and founder of Savvy Optics Corp., is the head of the American delegation to ISO TC 172 SC1, and is Executive Director of the Optics and Electro-Optics Standards Council. He also served as the project manager for the current ISO surface texture notation standards for optics.

SC417 Evaluating Aspheres for Manufacturability

Paul Dumas, QED Technologies, Inc., USA
Sunday, 22 June, 17:00 -20:00

Course Level
Advanced Beginner
Course Description
This course provides an overview of how aspheric surfaces are designed, manufactured, and measured. The primary goal of this course is to teach how to determine whether a particular aspheric surface design will be difficult to make and/or test. This will facilitate cost/performance trade off discussions between designers, fabricators, and metrologists.

We will begin with a discussion of what an asphere is and how they benefit optical designs. Next we will explain various asphere geometry characteristics, especially how to evaluate local curvature plots. We will also review flaws of the standard polynomial representation, and how the Forbes polynomials can simplify asphere analysis. Then we will discuss how various specifications (such as figure error and local slope) can influence the difficulty of manufacturing an asphere. Optical assembly tolerances, however, are beyond the scope of this course - we will focus on individual elements (lenses / mirrors).

The latter half of the course will focus on the more common technologies used to generate, polish, and/or measure aspheric surfaces (e.g. diamond turning, glass molding, pad polishing, interferometry). We'll give an overview of a few generic manufacturing processes (e.g. generate-polish-measure). Then we'll review the main strengths and weaknesses of each technology in the context of cost-effective asphere manufacturing.
Benefits and Learning Objectives
This course will enable you to:

  • Identify the most important metrics of aspheric shape that relate to manufacturability
  • Evaluate key characteristics of an aspheric surface to determine whether an asphere will be difficult to manufacture and/or test
  • Describe how Forbes polynomials can simplify asphere interpretation
  • Interpret an aspheric prescription from an optical component print
  • List common ways aspheres are manufactured and tested
  • Answer the question "Which technologies are best suited to manufacture this asphere?"
Intended Audience
This material is intended for engineers, optical designers, and managers who want an overview of the benefits and challenges associated with manufacturing aspheric surfaces for use in optical systems. It will be of benefit for specialists in a particular area (e.g. design, manufacturing, or testing), as it will give a broad overview in all three of those areas with a focus on aspheric surfaces. It is intended to facilitate communication between designers, fabricators, and testers of aspheric surfaces.
Instructor Biography
Paul Dumas is one of the founding members of QED Technologies, where he has developed software and processes for aspheric optical manufacturing.  He received his B.S. and M.S. in Optics from The Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester. In the early 1990s, and since has managed various engineering groups throughout the company's history, including Software, Systems, and Applications.

SC418 Optical Materials, Fabrication and the Testing for the Optical Engineer

Jessica Nelson, Optimax SI, USA
Sunday, 22 June, 09:00-12:00

This course is designed to give the optical engineer or lens designer an introduction to the technologies and techniques of optical materials, fabrication and testing.  This knowledge will help the optical engineer understand which optical specifications/tolerances lead to more cost effective optical components. Topics covered include optical materials, traditional, CNC and novel optical fabrication technologies, surface testing and fabrication tolerances. 

Course Level

Benefits and Learning Objectives

This course will enable you to:

  • Identify key mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of optical materials (glass, crystals and ceramics) and how they affect the optical system performance and cost of optical components
  • Understand the basics of optical fabrication
  • Define meaningful surface tolerances
  • Communicate with optical fabricators
  • Design optical components that are able to be manufactured and measured using state of the art optical fabrication technologies
Intended Audience
Optical engineers, lens designers, or managers who wish to learn more about how optical materials, fabrication and testing affect the optical designer. Undergraduate training in engineering or science is assumed.
Jessica DeGroote Nelson is the R&D manager and scientist at Optimax Systems, Inc.  She specializes in optical materials and fabrication processes.  She is an adjunct faculty member at The Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester teaching an undergraduate course on Optical Fabrication and Testing, and has given several guest lectures on optical metrology methods.  She earned a Ph.D. in Optics at The Institute of Optics at the University and SPIE.
How to Measure Everything, David Brady, Duke University, USA

Abstract: The ideal camera measures wide-field diffraction-limited images of the full focal stack with photon-limited spectral and temporal resolution and infinite dynamic range. Multiscale optics and compressive coding may bring practical cameras close to this limit.

Bio: David Brady is the Michael J. Fitzpatrick Endowed Professor of Photonics at Duke University, where he leads the Duke Imaging and Spectroscopy Program. Brady's contributions to computational imaging systems include lensless white light tomography, optical projection tomography, compressive holography, reference structure tomography, coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging and coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging. He is the principal investigator for the DARPA AWARE Wide Field of View project, which aims to build compact streaming gigapixel scale imagers and the DARPA Knowledge Enhanced Exapixel Photography project, which focuses on code design for high pixel count spectral imagers. He is the author of Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy  (Wiley-OSA, 2009) and is a Fellow of IEEE, SPIE and OSA and was the 2013 winner of the SPIE Dennis Gabor Award.

Finding Life in the Universe: The Colossus Project, Jeff R. Kuhn; Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, USA

Abstract: Work progresses on the design of a sixty by 8-meter diameter telescope. This 77+ m diameter, optically phase controlled, almost-filled aperture interferometer can see atmospheric biomarkers and even the thermal footprints from Earth-like civilizations on exoplanets. This talk describes the motivation, enabling new technologies, and status of the group now planning the Colossus telescope.

Bio: Jeff Kuhn is an optical scientist and teacher. He earned his physics PhD from Princeton, and spent the last three decades as a professor of physics, or astrophysics at: Princeton, Michigan State, and the University of Hawaii. He was science head for the National Solar Observatory at Sunspot NM. and the director of the Institute for Astronomy on Maui for a decade. He's written over 200 papers on subjects ranging from gravitational radiation to novel instrumentation.  He has been the recipient of a Sloan Foundation Grant and a Senior Humboldt Prize from Germany.  Some of the optical concepts he's written about are now core technologies for telescopes under construction, like the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope on Haleakala and the Giant Magellan Telescope. He is a founder of the Colossus Project -- a public and private consortium now designing an instrument to find Earth-like civilizations in the galactic solar neighborhood. Jeff lives on Maui where he researches and teaches at the Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii.

Will Computational Imaging Change Lens Design?, Kevin P. Thompson, Synopsys, Inc., USA
Abstract: Computational imaging is changing the landscape in many dimensions.  If extended depth of focus is leveraged to allow curved image surfaces, the lens design environment changes dramatically.  This talk will highlight this potential new world.
Bio: Kevin P. Thompson, Ph.D. is the Group Director of R&D/Optics at Synopsys Inc. and a Visiting Scientist at the University of Rochester, Institute of Optics.  Dr. Thompson’s primary technical expertise is as a lens designer and aberration theorist, particularly for optical systems without symmetry including head worn displays, EUV lithography projection and illumination optics, and advanced reconnaissance systems.  Dr. Thompson joined Optical Research Associates (now part of Synopsys) as an optical designer in 1986 after 5 years with the optical design group at Perkin-Elmer's government division.  Kevin conducted his PhD research with Prof. Roland Shack at the College of Optical Sciences where he developed Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT), the optical aberration field descriptions for optical systems without positional symmetry, which was recently discovered to also be the aberration theory for the emerging field of freeform optics.  Kevin is an OSA Fellow, a Fellow of the SPIE, and the 2013 recipient of the 2013 SPIE A.E. Conrady award.