EMBARGOED for Release until 12:01 a.m. Wednesday, May 28, 2008
Angela Stark, Optical Society
Jason Bardi, American Institute of Physics
Scientists in Japan Design First Optical Pacemaker for Laboratory Research
Laser Controls Beating of Heart Muscle Cells in Cell Culture
WASHINGTON, May 28 — The world's first optical pacemaker is described in an article published today in Optics Express, the Optical Society’s open-access journal. A team of scientists at Osaka University in Japan show that powerful, but very short, laser pulses can help control the beating of heart muscle cells.
"If you put a large amount of laser power through these cells over a very short time period, you get a huge response," says Nicholas Smith, who led the research. The laser pulses cause the release of calcium ions within the cells, Smith explains, and this action forces the cells to contract.
This technique provides a tool for controlling heart muscle cells in the laboratory, a breakthrough that may help scientists better understand the mechanism of heart muscle contraction.
One potential application of this technology is in studying uncoordinated contractions in heart muscle. Normally, heart muscle contracts in a highly coordinated fashion, and this is what allows the heart to pump blood through the vasculature. But in some people, this coordinated beating breaks down, and the heart twitches irregularly—a condition known as fibrillation.
The new laser technique may allow scientists to create a form of fibrillation in the test tube. The lasers can destabilize the beating of the cells in laboratory experiments by introducing a beat frequency in one target cell distinct from the surrounding cells. This would allow scientists to study irregular heart beats on a cellular level and screen anti-fibrillation drugs.
Outside the laboratory, exposing heart muscle cells to powerful laser pulses can have its drawbacks. Although the laser pulses last for less than a trillionth of a second, damaging effects can build up over time and this currently limits the possibility of clinical applications.
This work was supported by the Japan Science and Technology organization.
Paper: "A Femtosecond Laser Pacemaker for Heart Muscle Cells," N.I. Smith et al, Optics Express. Complete paper available on request.
Uniting more than 70,000 professionals from 134 countries, the Optical Society (OSA) brings together the global optics community through its programs and initiatives. Since 1916 OSA has worked to advance the common interests of the field, providing educational resources to the scientists, engineers and business leaders who work in the field by promoting the science of light and the advanced technologies made possible by optics and photonics. OSA publications, events, technical groups and programs foster optics knowledge and scientific collaboration among all those with an interest in optics and photonics. For more information, visit www.osa.org.