2017 Board of Directors Biographies

Shanti Bhattacharya

IIT Madras, India
Term: 1 January 2017 - 31 December 2018

Shanti Bhattacharya obtained her Ph.D. in Physics from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras in 1997. Her doctoral work was in the area of Optical Array Illuminators. After completing her Ph.D., she worked at the Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany, first as an Alexander von Humboldt fellow and then as a Guest Scientist. Her research work there included development of an optical pick-up for CD/DVD systems and the design of diffractive optical elements for beam shaping of high power laser beams. She subsequently joined the MEMS division of Analog Devices, Cambridge, USA, where she worked on the design of an optical MEMS switch. She is currently an Associate Professor and has been with the Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Madras since 2005. Her current research interests are diffractive optics, optical MEMS and the development of measurement and imaging techniques using fibre interferometry.

Mark Brongersma

Stanford, USA
Term: 1 January 2017 - 31 December 2019

Mark Brongersma is a Professor in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Applied Physics (by courtesy) at Stanford University. He leads a research team of ten students and four postdocs. Their research is directed towards the development and physical analysis of new materials and structures that find use in nanoscale electronic and photonic devices. He studied physics at Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. He received his Ph.D. from the FOM Institute in Amsterdam in 1998. There he investigated the optical properties of light-emitting silicon nanostructures. From 1998-2001, he was a postdoctoral research fellow at the California Institute of Technology. During this time, he worked on light manipulation with metallic nanostructures below the free space diffraction limit. There, he coined the term “plasmonics” for a new device technology that exploits the unique optical properties of nanoscale metallic structures to route and manipulate light at the nanoscale. He has authored\co-authored over 175 publications, including papers in Science, Nature Photonics, Nature Materials, and Nature Nanotechnology. He also holds a number of patents in the area of Si microphotonics and plasmonics. He is a co-founder of Rolith, a company that has developed a range of products that require large-area, low-cost, high-throughput nanostructuring. Brongersma was the Chair of the Gordon Conference on Plasmonics in 2014. He received a National Science Foundation Career Award, the Walter J. Gores Award for Excellence in Teaching, the International Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize in the Physical Sciences (Physics) for his work on plasmonics, and is a Fellow of The Optical Society, SPIE, and the American Physical Society.

Pierre Chavel

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Institut d'Optique, France
Term: 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2019

Pierre Chavel graduated from the Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, with a docteur es sciences in physics in 1979. Since 1972, he has been a research scientist at CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), working at the Institut d'Optique – Graduate School. His research interests include subwavelength diffractive optics, digital image processing, optical coherence, speckle and optoelectronic computing. His publications include some 120 articles in refereed journals and 12 patents and he edited or co-edited several books. He has taught courses on physical optics, coherence, geometrical optics, optics in computing, speckle, Fourier analysis and Fourier optics at IOGS and other institutions. As a participant or PI, he has been involved for many years in research projects funded by the European Union “Framework Programme” for Science and Technology. From 2004 through 2009, he chaired the board of shareholders of one high tech startup company in the field of biophotonics. He served as the Director of Laboratoire Charles Fabry (1998-2009, 2013-2014) and is serving as a deputy director for the Saint-Etienne site of Institut d’Optique, also working there with Laboratoire Hubert Curien. He was a visiting scientist at the Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles during 1979-1980, and a Xiing Sheng Chern Visiting Professor at the Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin, China (2007-2010). A Fellow of OSA, SPIE (International Society of Optics and Photonics), and the European Optical Society, he served on the board of SFO, the French Optical Society (1983-89 and 91-95) and as the Secretary of the International Commission for Optics, 1990-2002 and as a chair of a number of scientific conferences, including CLEO Europe 2000 (one of the two program chairs) and CLEO Europe 2003 (one of the two general chairs). He is also the President of the French Physics Olympiads (2011-present).

Jay M. Eastman

Optel, Inc., USA
Term: 1/1/2015-31/12/2017

Jay Eastman received his B.S. (1970) and Ph.D. (1974) from The Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester. Following completion of his degrees he became the manager of engineering in the Optics Group at Spectra Physics in Mountain View, California. From there he joined the staff of the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester, progressing from staff engineer to Project Manager for the construction of the 24 beam Omega Laser Fusion System. He finally served as the Director of the Laboratory after the departure of its founding director.

Dr. Eastman has subsequently formed four start-up companies, with three of them having strong optics and photonics technology bases. The first was Optel Systems Inc., (subsequently acquired by PSC, Inc.) which developed the first hand-held laser diode-based bar code scanners in the world. During the 1990’s the company became a recognized leader in field of bar code scanning. Next was Lucid, Inc., a pioneer in the development of in-vivo confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of skin cancer. The confocal imagers, called VivaScopes, have been used by medical researchers around the world for research and clinical diagnosis of skin cancers, resulting in over 350 peer-reviewed publications in various medical journals and several books on the use of confocal microscopy in dermatology. Eastman is now involved as a co-founder in two more start-up medical companies, one of which is heavily based on optical technology. As a consequence of his work in these companies, he is a named inventor on 44 issued U.S. patents.

In addition to his entrepreneurial pursuits, Dr. Eastman has served as an adjunct professor at the Institute of Optics over the years since he received his Ph.D., periodically teaching courses in optical fabrication, optical thin films, product development and entrepreneurism. Dr. Eastman’s honors, awards and professional contributions and achievements include: member of the National Academy of Science’s Board of Assessment of NIST Programs, Panel for Physics (2000-2002); Herbert Vanden Brul Entrepreneur of the Year Award (1996-1997); The Optical Society: Engineering Excellence Award (1994), Board of Directors (1984-1988), Chair of the Technical Council; Rochester Engineering Society - Engineer of the Year (1997); Rochester Museum and Science Center - Distinguished Lecturer; Rochester Optical Society: Honorary Member (1992) and President; University of Rochester SMPTE Fellow, (1972-1973), and Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers - Board of Governors. He is a Fellow of OSA and the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

Turan Erdogan 

Plymouth Grating Laboratory, Inc., USA
Term: 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018

Turan Erdogan has been studying, teaching, and practicing optics for 30 years.  He is currently President of Plymouth Grating Laboratory, Inc.  Prior to his current position, Erdogan was Site Leader of Melles Griot in Rochester, New York, a leading provider of high-performance lens assemblies and optical modules for biological imaging, semiconductor metrology, and other applications.  He has also served since 2011 as the CTO and VP of Business Development for the IDEX Optics & Photonics platform.
In 2000, Dr. Erdogan co-founded Semrock, Inc., which was then acquired by IDEX in 2008.  Semrock revolutionized the manufacturing of high-performance thin-film optical filters for fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy applications.  Prior to Semrock, he was a tenured professor at the The Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester, where he joined in 1994.  There he conducted research primarily on fiber and waveguide devices and holographic optical materials.  He taught courses offered to freshmen through advanced graduate students, and supervised both undergraduate and graduate research associates, graduating a number of Ph.D. students who have gone on to make their own marks in the world of optics.  He also consulted with numerous companies around the world on problems relating to Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic communications components and devices.
From 1992 to 1994 Dr. Erdogan was a post-doctoral researcher at Bell Laboratories, then part of AT&T.  There he conducted research on the physics of ultraviolet photosensitivity in germanium-doped silica optical fibers, planar waveguides, and bulk glasses, and developed numerous applications of fiber Bragg grating technology for precise wavelength control in WDM communications systems.  He has a Ph.D. from The Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester, and B.S. Degrees in Electrical Engineering and in Physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  He has authored or co-authored over 50 peer-reviewed scientific publications and over 50 major conference talks, and holds more than 30 issued patents, with about half of these covering optical devices in mass production today.
Dr. Erdogan has served as Program and General Chair of major OSA conferences, including the Optical Fiber Communications (OFC) Conference and the Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides Topical Meeting.  He has also served on a number of other conference organizing committees, and has been active in the Rochester Section of the OSA.
He was awarded the Adolph Lomb Medal of The Optical Society a, an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship in Physics, and a National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development Award.  In addition, he was named a Fellow of The Optical Society in 1999.  He lives in Rochester, New York with his wife and four children.


Amy Eskilson

Inrad Optics, USA
Term: 1/1/2015-31/12/2017

Amy Eskilson has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Inrad Optics, located in Northvale, NJ, since October 2012. Inrad Optics is a manufacturer of exceptional quality crystal materials, crystal devices and high precision optical components. As the leader of a small publicly-held company, Ms. Eskilson has a responsibility to both the business and to its shareholders. She also embraces her role as the company’s Chief Culture Officer, and as such works to mentor younger employees as well as challenge and excite longtime contributors. A strong advocate for localized manufacturing, Amy is focused on building an organization that is competitive and profitable while delivering products with extraordinary optical specifications.

Ms. Eskilson joined Inrad Optics in early 2011 as VP Sales and Marketing, charged with leading the sales team and building a market presence for Photonics Product Group, an umbrella company for the original Inrad, Laser Optics and MRC Precision Metal Optics brands. The multiple brand names had led to confusion in the industry and Amy executed an effort to rename and rebrand the organization. In January 2012 the business officially became Inrad Optics and launched a new website and marketing push concurrent with that name change.

In 2002 Ms. Eskilson’s role at Thorlabs became more strategic and outward facing. As Director of Business Development and a key member of the Thorlabs senior team, Amy’s work focused on three main areas – acquisitions, building the Thorlabs strategic partner companies, and contracts, including licensing agreements, real estate matters, and supply agreements in partnership with outside counsel.

Amy is an engaged advocate for photonics, championing the field from the importance of basic research through the downstream commercialization of photonics technologies. Ms. Eskilson has also been active in several photonics start-up companies. She was a minority partner in optics and crystals manufacturer Nova Phase, Inc. and Menlo Systems Inc. (U.S. spin-out of Menlo Systems GmbH), both based in Newton, NJ. Amy currently serves as a member of the Board and minority partner in Idesta Quantum Electronics, Newton, NJ.

A member of OSA and SPIE, Ms. Eskilson has served on the OSA Public Policy Committee, the CLEO Joint Council on Applications, and as former chair of the CLEO Exhibitor Advisory Committee. She was recently profiled for the 2014-2015 SPIE “Women in Optics” Daily Planner publication.

Prior to discovering optics and photonics in 1992, Amy received her BA degree in Communications from Montclair State University in 1987 and spent several years in New York at McCann-Erickson, the worldwide advertising group.

David Fittinghoff

Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryUSA
Term:  1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017

David Fittinghoff received his B.S. (Physics 1985) from the University of California at Davis (UCD) and worked on high-power microwave research at Physics International before returning to UCD to earn his Ph.D. (Applied Science 1993) for his studies of optical field ionization using ultrashort pulses. Following completion of his Ph.D, he joined Sandia National Laboratory as a post-doctoral researcher where he was one of the key developers of frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) for the measurement of ultrashort laser pulses. 

In 2001, after six years as a research scientist at the University of California at San Diego where he worked on dispersion compensation and multiphoton microscopy, he joined Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as a staff scientist. Dr. Fittinghoff is currently the responsible scientist for neutron imaging at the National Ignition Facility.

A Fellow of OSA, Dr. Fittinghoff has served on OSA committees since 2000. In 2007, he helped restructure the Science and Engineering Council into its current structure. From 2008 to 2011, he served as a member of the OSA Board of Directors and as the chair of the OSA Board of Meetings. He is currently the chair of the OSA Meetings Council and a member of the OSA Board of Directors and OSA Finance Committee.

Alexandre Fong

Gooch & HousegoUSA
Term:  1 January 2016 to 31 December 31 2017

Alexandre Fong is Senior Vice-President, Life Sciences and Instrumentation and Business Development at Gooch & Housego (G&H) Instruments.  He holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in experimental physics from York University in Toronto, Canada, an MBA from the University of Florida and is a Chartered Engineer. 

Fong began his career at Optech Inc., a spin-out of research from York University and now a world-wide leader in lidar (light detection and ranging) systems. He was responsible for system design and engineering, testing, documentation, field installation and operator training of a break-through Airborne Lidar Terrain Mapping System deployed in European, domestic and Asian markets.  In addition, Fong also worked on the electro-optic design of atmospheric lidar systems. 

At AlliedSignal Aerospace (now Honeywell), he was responsible for the development and the lead technical interface with customers and regulatory agencies (FAA, Transport Canada) and airline field support teams on electrical power distribution on major civilian airliners. There he managed multi-disciplinary technical project design and production teams for Boeing 737 Next Generation power systems and other aircraft systems.

Fong then returned to photonics as the lead for new product development and go-to-market effort for next generation photonics packaging products at Newport Corporation. There he developed custom processes and automated solutions for optical networking device packaging. From a technical leadership role, Fong moved to business development and contract management, where he worked closely with engineering to identify and to develop new business opportunities for photonics component assembly automation products and entry into the medical components industry. 

Leaving to join ITT Industries as World-wide Product Manager, Fong worked with leaders in the mobile wireless handset market to develop and deliver innovative keypad solutions such as that found on the Motorola RAZR product.    

In his current role at G&H, Fong is responsible for product development strategy, world-wide marketing and sales. During his tenure at G&H, Alex has successfully targeted and grown new market sectors in LED/solid state lighting and display industrial production test and measurement and life sciences imaging. 

Fong is a published author and lecturer in the fields of precision light measurement, life sciences imaging, remote sensing, applied optics and lasers.  In addition to the OSA where he has served as Chair of the Public Policy Committee and as a Contributing Editor to Optics and Photonics News, he is also an active member of SPIE, International Commission on Illumination (CIE), Council for Optical Radiation Measurement, and the Institute of Physics. Fong is the current president of the Florida Photonics Cluster."

Franz Kärtner

Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (DESY) and University of Hamburg, Germany
Term: 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018

Franz Kärtner heads the Ultrafast Optics and X-rays Division at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) at DESY, Hamburg, and is Professor of Physics at University of Hamburg and Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).  Professor Kärtner received his Diploma and Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from Technical University in Munich, Germany in 1986, and 1989, respectively, developing a generalized noise analysis for microwave oscillators now used in commercial CAD tools. During his postdoc period from 1989-1991, he switched to quantum optics and worked on squeezed state generation from microwave devices and in fibers, which he continued as Feodor-Lynen Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation at MIT working with Hermann Haus and Erich Ippen. From 1993 to 1997, he earned his Habilitation Degree at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology working with Ursula Keller on several topics in Ultrafast Optics, such as the semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors for stable modelocking or Q-switching of solid-state lasers and dispersion compensating laser optics. After a visiting professorship in 1998 at MIT he joined University of Karlsruhe (TH), now Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), as Professor of Electrical Engineering and held the Chair for Photonics and Terahertz Technology. In 2001 he returned to MIT where he became full professor in 2005.
During the time at MIT he developed ultra-broadband dispersion compensating mirror systems that lead to the first octave spanning Ti:Sapphire lasers. High repetition-rate frequency combs based on this technology are used in the calibration of visible astrophysical spectrographs in the search for exo-planets by the Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics at Harvard. The ultralow jitter properties of femtosecond lasers was proven using the balanced optical cross-correlation technique, which lead over a 10 year period to the development of pulsed optical timing distribution systems delivering sub-femtosecond precision synchronization over km-distances. Today such systems are employed in several X-ray Free-Electron Lasers around the world. His current research at CFEL is focused on compact attosecond hard X-ray sources.
He served as Program and General Co-Chair for the LEOS Annual Meetings 2002 and 2004, the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2007 and 2009, and served over many years on the Program Committee of CLEO US and CLEO Europe and the corresponding Steering Committees. He also was Chair of the Ultrafast Optical Phenomena Technical Group of OSA 2008-2010 and Commission D, Electronics and Photonics, of the International Union of Radio Scientists (URSI) 2008-2011. Since 2012, he has served on the Scientific Advisory Committee of Max Born Institute, Berlin, Germany, and since 2014 he has served on the Science Policy Committee of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Board. Kärtner has authored or co-authored more than 280 peer-reviewed journal publications and four book chapters. He holds or has applied for 26 patents and is a fellow of The Optical Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Juerg Leuthold

ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Term: 1/1/2015-31/12/2017

Juerg Leuthold is the head of the Institute of Electromagnetic Fields at ETH Zurich, Switzerland. His research interests are in the field of optical communications, nonlinear optics, plasmonics and photonics for sensing and biomedical applications. For this purpose, he maintains and shares lab facilities for the fabrication, characterization, and system-level testing of integrated optical devices and the testing of larger systems. He has contributed more than 450 scientific journal and conference papers as an author and coauthor.

Juerg Leuthold is actively engaged in The Optical Society and serves the optical community in several capacities. Besides serving as a member and chair of technical program committees, he was the general chair of the OSA 2010 Advanced Optics and Photonics Congress in Karlsruhe, and a group chair and general chair of the OSA Photonics Division. He is currently a member of the OSA Meetings Council.

Juerg Leuthold received his Ph.D. in physics from ETH Zurich in 1998 for work in the field of integrated optics. From 1999 to 2004 he was affiliated with Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies in Holmdel, NJ, USA, where he performed device and system research. From July 2004 to February 2013 he was a full Professor at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), where he was head of the Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ) and head of the Helmholtz Research Institute of Micro Structure Technology (IMT). He has been a full Professor at ETH Zurich since March 2013. Juerg Leuthold is a Fellow of OSA and IEEE. In Germany he was a member of the Helmholtz Association Think Tank and the Heidelberg Academy of Science.

Michal Lipson

Columbia University, USA
Term: 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2018

Michal Lipson is the Eugene Higgins Professor at Columbia University. She completed her B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Physics in the Technion in 1998. Following a Postdoctoral position in MIT in the Material Science department from 1998 to 2001, she joined the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Cornell University and was named the Given Foundation Professor of Engineering at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering in 2012. In 2015 she joined the electrical engineering department at Columbia University. Lipson is one of the pioneers of the field of silicon photonics. She holds over 20 patents and is the author of over 200 technical papers. Prof. Lipson’s honors and awards include Macarthur Fellow, Blavatnik Award, IBM Faculty Award, and NSF Early Career Award. She is a Fellow of both the OSA and of IEEE.  She was named by Thomson Reuters as a top 1% highly cited researcher in the field of Physics.

Carlos Lopez-Mariscal

Underwater Photonics, Inc., Mexico
Term: 1 March 2016 - 31 December 2018

Carlos Lopez-Mariscal is the Lead Optical Scientist at Underwater Photonics, Inc. He obtained BSc, MSc and PhD degrees from Tecnologico de Monterrey in Monterrey, Mexico. In 2007, he joined the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where he designed and built precision microfluidic devices to produce single-molecule containers used for optical micromanipulation. He also developed numerical algorithms to generate custom-shaped non-diffracting laser beams.

In 2010, he joined the US Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC., where he developed homeland security and defense threat countermeasure technologies. There, he also conducted research on optical force chromatography of aerosols and living cells. He has served as the inaugural Chair of the Optical Trapping and Applications (OTA) topical meeting from 2008 to 2012, as well as a program subcommittee chair for Frontiers in Optics. He has been a member of the Optics & Photonics News Editorial Advisory Committee and the Membership and Education Services Council.

Lopez-Mariscal is an avid supporter of OSA’s young professionals community, and has promoted their active involvement in the Society's programs and initiatives. He has spoken at large to OSA student chapters worldwide about professional career development and about the skills required to navigate an ever-challenging professional world. Some of the topics of his talks include: Giving an Outstanding Talk, Successful Professional Networking, What to Expect at a Job Interview, Peer-Reviewing 101 and How to Write a Great Journal Paper. He has been an OSA Traveling Lecturer at more than 20 institutions in 11 different countries and has authored numerous peer-reviewed publications and two book chapters.

Takashige Omatsu

Chiba University, Japan
Term: 3/1/15-12/31/17

Takashige Omatsu is Professor, Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science at Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.His work has included investigating optical vortex technologies, including optical vortex material processing and development of high-power optical vortex lasers. In particular, he discovered for the first time that optical vortex can twist metal to form chiral metal nanostrucutures. Professor Omatsu has over 60 graduate students and supervises more than 20 PhD students in the field of laser physics, nonlinear optics and optical vortex laser technologies.
Professor Omatsu received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in applied physics from the University of Tokyo, Japan, in 1983 and 1992 for research of frequency-extension of metal vapour lasers and temporal evolution of spatial coherence in metal vapour lasers.In 1992, he became a research associate at Chiba University, where he worked on diode-pumped solid-state lasers, in particular thermal lens measurement and correction techniques.
He has published more than 250 journal and conference papers, 6 patents (2 US patents) and has been a popular presenter at international and domestic conferences, including CLEO-US, CLEO Pacific-Rim, CLEO Europe, and at OSA topical meetings.  He was an Associate Editor of Optics Express  (2006-2012), Associate Editor of Applied Physics Express (2011-2014).

Martijn de Sterke

University of Syndey, Australia 
Term: 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2019

Martijn de Sterke was bitten by the optics bug during a third-year undergraduate laboratory experiment at the University of Delft in the Netherlands, studying the aberrations of microscope objectives. He received B. Eng. and M. Eng. degrees from Delft, and his Ph.D. in optics from the University of Rochester (1987). After postdoctoral work at the University of Toronto, he took up a faculty position at the University of Sydney in 1991, where he has been a Professor in Physics since 2003. He was Associate Dean for Research at Sydney from 2004-2006. He received the Pawsey Medal from the Australian Academy of Sciences in 1999, and was awarded an OSA Fellowship in 2003.

Martijn de Sterke has been associated with OSA since 1987, when, as a graduate student, he presented at the annual meeting held in Rochester, N.Y. More recently (2001-2006), he has been Associate Editor of Optics Express, and he was its Editor-in-Chief during 2007-2012, a time during which the yearly submissions to the journal nearly doubled to over 6,000. He was the first from outside North America to be appointed to be Editor-in-Chief of an OSA journal. Since 2014 he has been Chair of OSA’s Board of Editors. He has been active in conference organization, most notably as a Program Chair of the 2011 CLEO Pacific Rim conference meeting held in Sydney, and also of the QELS conference when it was held in Munich in 2013. He has been an OSA Traveling lecturer for many years, most recently visiting India in 2015 and again earlier this year. From 2006-2007, he was a Council member of the Australian Optical Society (AOS).

Martijn de Sterke is a theorist who has published more than 300 refereed journal papers and book chapters in areas as varied as nonlinear optics, guided-wave optics, wave propagation in random media, periodic media (including fiber gratings and photonic crystals), solar energy, plasmonics and metamaterials. Highlights include theory and the first experimental observation of gap solitons, the development of the Multipole Method for the calculation of the modes of microstructured optical fibers, and the theory and observation of Bloch oscillations in curved waveguide arrays. He was a founding Chief Investigator of the CUDOS research center (seven universities, over 100 researchers) which has received continuous funding from the Australian Government since 2003. He has supervised or co-supervised 22 Ph.D. students to completion.